Genetics Explained in 3 Minutes

Wednesday, May 4, 2022

Genetics in 3 minutes

The basic unit of life is the cell. Inside the cell of eukaryotic individuals is the nucleus. 
The nucleus looks like a dark spot but contains the DNA.  


A DNA molecule is made up of two strands of the sugar deoxyribose and phosphate and then it has rungs like a ladder. The rungs of the ladder of DNA are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. 


Your DNA is divided into shorter segments called chromosomes. 
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and during cell division the DNA condenses and wraps around proteins and creates chromosomes. 


Your chromosomes have shorter segments called genes. 
The sum of all your genetic material is your genome. 


Your DNA is very stable and can last thousands of years. 
Your DNA is an instructional manual for making you. DNA passes information extremely accurate and only makes an error per billion letters copied or three errors per cell division. 
Most of these mutations your body can ignore but some have lasting impact. 
Your DNA keeps your line of existence going. The genes you carried are ancient and will continue as long as your line produces offspring. 


What genes specifically do is provide instructions for making proteins. 

DNA make proteins

Some proteins speed up chemical reactions called enzymes. 
Some proteins past chemical messages called hormones, while others attack pathogens called antibiotics. 


We are all very different but genetically almost identical. All humans share 99.9% of our DNA, and our DNA differs in only three or four million places. This is a small amount compared to the total but enough to make a difference. 

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