10 Facts about Levers

Friday, January 17, 2020

A lever is a simple machine, that is the basis of many tools in and around your house and work.
The way levers work is by a force is applied at a point, which moves a load at another point through a balance point called the fulcrum. It is the relative positions of these three points - the force, the load, and the fulcrum - that distinguishes the type or class of lever. There are three classes of lever 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class.
1. Archimedes had this insight about a lever, "Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, and I shall move the world."
2. A wheelbarrow is a class 2 levers that allow you to carry heavy loads.
3. Scissors are actually a wedge combined with a 1st class lever.
4. Pliers allow you to multiply your gripping power by using a 1st class lever.
5. A see-saw is a regular fixture at playgrounds and uses the power of a 1st class lever.
6. Hockey players use the leverage of a third-class lever in order to shoot the puck at great speeds.
7. A golf club is a 3rd class lever.
8. A 1st class lever has the fulcrum is in the middle and the force is on one side and the load is on the opposite end. 
9. A 2nd class lever has the load between the force and the fulcrum. 
10. A 3rd class lever has the fulcrum on one end, the force in the middle, and the load on the end.

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Types of Faults in Geology

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

The Earth is a dynamic and constantly changing place. the tectonic plates which sit on the asthenosphere shift and move. This movement creates stress, and rocks at the surface may break in response to this. When rock breaks, cracks are created which are called faults. On either side of the fault are blocks of rock called fault blocks. When these fault blocks move, earthquakes may occur.

There are three main types of faults. Strike-slip faults, normal faults,  and reverse faults

Lets first determine the difference between the hanging wall and the footwall. In all faults, except for vertical faults, the hanging wall is the block above the fault and the footwall is below.

Two simple ways to identify the foot and hanging wall is to place your finger on the fault surface and move it up. It will automatically be located in the hanging wall. The hanging wall will have an angle less than 90 degrees at the top and the footwall will have an angle greater than 90 degrees at the top.

In a strike-slip fault, the blocks move past each other horizontally. A strike-slip fault occurs due to shear stress which pushes the rock horizontally but in opposite directions.
Strike-slip faults are common along transform boundaries like the San Andreas fault.

During a normal fault, the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall. These faults are called normal because this is what you would normally expect the faults to do. Normal faults are a result of tension that stretches or pulls the rock apart. Normal faults are common along divergent boundaries. The basin and range area is an example.

A reverse fault occurs when the hanging wall moves up the footwall. They are called reverse because this is the reverse of what you would expect as a result of gravity.
Reverse faults occur as a result of compression which is a stress that squeezes the rock together.

The San Gabriel mountains are caused by reverse faults.

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15 Facts about Plate Boundaries-Divergent-Convergent-Transform

15 Facts about Plate Boundaries

Plate Boundaries help create Mountains, chains of islands and create Earthquakes.

Divergent boundaries pull huge tectonic plates apart.

Convergent boundaries push tectonic plates together.

Transform boundaries cause Earthquakes.

Transform boundaries occur when tectonic plates slide past each other.

Convergent boundaries can create mountains when continental and continental plates collide.

Continental plates colliding into oceanic plates can create volcanoes over the land.

The oceanic lithosphere is denser than the continental lithosphere.

Divergent boundaries create the mid-ocean ridge.

Divergent boundaries create new lithosphere as the plates move apart from one another.

The African Rift valley is an example of a divergent boundary.

Transform boundaries like the San Andreas fault may create Earthquakes.

The tectonic plates sit on top of the asthenosphere.

Subduction occurs when oceanic crust moves underneath the continental crust.

Mount Everest was created at convergent boundaries.

Electron distribution elements 1-18

Monday, January 13, 2020

Learn how the electrons are distributed in elements 1 through 18.

When distributing electrons in these elements follow these guidelines.

Shell 1 or K shell can hold 2 electrons
Shell 2 or L shell can hold up to 8 electrons
Shell 3 or M shell can hold up to 8 electrons

The valence electrons are the electrons in the outer shell.
Period 1 These elements will have 1 valence electron.

Element 1 is Hydrogen in group 1  and contains one energy shell and 1 electron.

Element 2 Helium period 1 group 18 and is the one exception because it has 2 valence electrons in the outer shell

 Period 2 which each has 2 energy shells.

Element 3 Lithium found in group 1 has 2 electrons in k shell and 1 valence electron in L

Element 4 Beryllium is found in group 2 and has 2 electrons in k shell and 2 valence electrons in L

Element 5 Boron Is found in group 13 and has 2 electrons in k and 3 valence electrons in L

Element 6 Carbon Is found in group 14 and has 2 electrons in k and 4 valence electrons in L

Element 7 Nitrogen Is found in group 15 and has 2 electrons in k and 5 valence electrons in L

Element 8 Oxygen Is found in group 16 and has 2 electrons in k and 6 valence electrons in L

Element 9 Fluorine Is found in group 17 and has 2 electrons in k and 7 valence electrons in L

Element 10 Neon Is found in group 18 and has 2 electrons in k and 8 valence electrons in L

Period 3 with 3 electron shells

Element 11 Sodium Is found in group 1 and has 2 electrons in k and 8 electrons in L and 1 valence electron in m

Element 12 Magnesium Is found in group 2 and has 2 electrons in k and 8 electrons in L and 2 valence electrons in m shell.

Element 13 Aluminium and has 2 electrons in k and 8 electrons in L and 3 electron in m

Element  14 Silicon is found in group 1 and has 2 electrons in k and 8 electrons in L and 4 electron in m.

Element  15 Phosphorus Is found in group 1 and has 2 electrons in k and 8 electrons in L and 5 electrons in m

Element 16 Sulfur Is found in group 1 and has 2 electrons in k and 8 electrons in L and 6 electrons in m

Element  17 Chlorine Is found in group 1 and has 2 electrons in k and 8  electrons in L and 7 electrons in m

Element  18 Argon Is found in group 1 and has 2 electrons in k and 8 electrons in L and 8 electrons in m

Examples of Symbiotic Relationships in Nature

Monday, November 11, 2019

Check out these examples of symbiotic relationships.

What is Groundwater? 15 Facts about Groundwater

Monday, October 28, 2019

What is groundwater?
The Earth is 70 % water. However, only 3% of this water is freshwater. Much of this freshwater is frozen in glaciers, you will find some of the water in rivers and streams, and almost 30% of this freshwater is groundwater.
But What is groundwater? Groundwater is water that finds it way between the gaps of rocks and sediments underground.
As the water seeps into the ground it may find it’s way into an aquifer. Aquifers are underground rock layers saturated with groundwater. An aquifer is not an underground river but large porous layers of rock.
For example, the Floridan aquifer covers almost the entire state of Florida and is 100,000 square miles. Think of an aquifer like a huge underground sponge that soaks up water that falls to the surface of the earth.
If you grabbed a shovel and started digging straight down you may strike water.
The first water you strike is the water table. Below the water table, the rock may be completely soaked. This is called the saturation zone, The rocks and sediment above the saturation zone is the unsaturated zone.

How does the water end up in the ground?
When it rains or snows some of the water moves down into the ground. If this water moves deep enough it can stay their for a long time.
Like thousands of years.
However, not all of the groundwater stays underground. Much of the surface water comes from groundwater and aquifers. If the ground dips below the water table the groundwater will flow to the surface and may create a body of surface water.
Groundwater can also flow out of the ground and create a stream. This is called a spring.
However, some groundwater is so deep it is very difficult to get to. These bodies of groundwater are called confined groundwater.
Humans depend on groundwater for drinking water and growing crops.
The groundwater can be reached by digging a well There are thousands and thousands of well throughout the world.

15 Facts about Groundwater

  • Groundwater is water that seeps into the ground and is stored in porous rock.
  • Permeability is a measure of how easily water can flow through rocks and minerals.
  • The storage space of an aquifer is measured by porosity.
  • Recharge is when surface water trickles down into the ground and reaches the water table and enters an aquifer.
  • Aquifers can be huge. The Ogallalla  aquifer, which underlies portions of eight states.
  • Aquifers are important sources of drinking water. For example,
  • the Kirkwood–Cohansey Aquifer, is located under the Pine Barrens of southern New Jersey, contains 17 trillion US gallons of some of the purest water in the United State.
  • The first water you reach when you dig down into the Earth is the water table. It is the upper surface of the groundwater.
  • A confined aquifer has layers of impermeable material  both above and below the aquifer.
  • Sandstone, conglomerate, fractured limestone and unconsolidated sand and gravel. along with basalts make good aquifers.
  • Agriculture accounts for almost 70% of groundwater use.
  • A cup of gravel has a greater porosity than a cup of sand.
  • An aquifer is filled with moving water and the amount of water in storage in the aquifer can vary from season to season and year to year.
  • The disposal of waste at landfills, by septic tanks, or storm drain wells can have a negative impact on the quality of ground water in an aquifer.
  • The Ogallala aquifer in central United States is the largest aquifer in the United States.
  • Two billion people use aquifers that are filled with groundwater as a water source.

How do we know the T-rex once existed? 20 Facts about Fossils

Friday, October 25, 2019

How do we know the T-Rex once existed? Fortunately, we have fossils that give us a record of once-living organisms. What are fossils? In this video, learn about mineralization, carbonization, casts, molds, and original materials.

There are several different types of fossils and these fossils may tell us about dinosaurs, insects, ancient tigers and much more. For example, one may only find trace fossils of footprints of dinosaurs that roamed the Earth millions of years ago. Sometimes animals may fall into tar pits and be preserved for many years.

Let's learn 25 interesting facts about fossils.

The term fossil is a Latin term which means " obtained by digging."

Mineralization is when an organism dies and its remains are replaced with minerals.

Petrified wood is an example of mineralization.

Calistoga California is home to some of the world's largest petrified trees.

Carbonization occurs when an organism dies and all that remains is a carbon outline.

A mold may create a fossil when an organism dies and creates an impression.

Bones, teeth, and shells often create molds.

Feathers are often preserved through carbonization.

Fossils are often preserved in sedimentary rocks.

The fossil skeleton of the marine reptile Mosasaurus was the first fossil to be identified as the remains of an extinct organism.

The limestone deposits of Solnhofen, Germany are famous for the discovery of the Archaeopteryx, which appears to be the perfect "missing link" between dinosaurs and birds.

Trace fossils are remains of once-living organism activity. Footprints are examples of trace fossils.

Some organisms like small insects become preserved in amber.

A paleontologist is a scientist who studies fossils.

Most fossils are the remains of extinct organisms.

The world's largest fossil is the remains of Patagotitan mayorum, the fossilized remains of a long-necked creature that was 120-feet long and weighed over 150,000 pounds.

Fossils of poop are called coprolites, and they can tell us what a creature ate.

The La Brea Tar Pits are a group of tar pits around Los Angelos and the remains of ancient organisms are found in the tar pits.

The state of Montana is a popular state for finding fossils of dinosaurs.

The first Tyrannosaurus rex fossil was discovered by the famous fossil hunter Barnum Brown in 1902.

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