Coding from Transcription to Translation |DNA to mRNA to tRNA|

Friday, February 22, 2019

Practice coding from DNA to mRNA to tRNA to the Amino acid

Let’s talk about decoding from DNA to mRNA to tRNA to an amino
acid in simple terms.
 DNA is made up of four nitrogen bases, 
Adenine Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. Let's shorten this to  A C G and T.
 A always pairs with T and G pairs with C.
If we have this strand of DNA and move from 5 to 3 for the complementary
strand you will have A will pair with T, G with C.  This template strand is moving from 3 prime to 5 prime. Why do you have a 5 and 3 prime end? The phosphate group is attached to the 5' carbon of the sugar ring, which is why it is called the 5' end and the hydroxyl group is attached to the 3' carbon of the sugar ring, which is why it is called the 3' end.
Messenger RNA is similar to DNA but instead of the nitrogen base thymine you have uracil For this complementary strand the DNA has unzipped and you are left with this
strand of DNA which is used as a template for mRNA.  The  T will pair
with the A, the A with the U, the C with G and so forth. Remember A pairs with Uracil instead of  Thymine with mRNA.This step is part of transcription.
Now transfer RNA pairs with the messenger RNA. The messenger RNA will be
the codon and the transport RNA will be the anticodon. The transfer RNA has
uracil, therefore, A will pair with U.
U will pair with A and G with C and so forth. This takes place outside the nucleus and is part of translation. Now let's find the amino acid. You can use an amino acid chart, I'm
using an mRNA chart so I will use the messenger RNA codon. The mRNA will code
in triplets. Notice you are reading from 5 prime to 3 prime.

  • AUG pairs up with the methionine
  • CCU pairs up with prolene
  • CUA pairs up with leucine 
  • GUA pairs up with valine. 

DNA           ATG     CCT  CTA  GTA
mRNA        UAC     GGA GAU CAU     
tRNA          AUG     CCU CUA  GUA 

Amino Acid  met     pro    leu     val

Mollusca | Gastropods-Bivalves-Cephlapods |

Wednesday, February 20, 2019

Let's take a quick look at phylum Mollusca
Mollusks are invertebrates that are found in the ocean, in freshwater, and on land.
Almost all mollusks have these common traits.

  • A soft body and bilateral symmetry
  • An internal or external shell
  • A toothed tongue called the radula The radula is used by mollusks for feeding and is sometimes compared to a tongue. The radula is found in every class of mollusks except bivalves.
  • Mollusks have a mantle which is a covering of the visceral mass. The visceral mass contains the digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs.
  • An organized nervous system
  • A muscular foot that may be used for movement

Let's take a look at three major classes of gastropods


Gastropods have a head and a foot. Although the name "snail"  is, applied to all the members of this class, commonly this word means only those species with an external shell. Those gastropods without a shell are usually known as slugs.
Gastropods have an extraordinary diversification of habitats.
They live in gardens, woodland, deserts,  and even in the depths of the oceans. 


Bivalves are mollusks that have two shells.
Some common examples are clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops. Bivalves are found in saltwater, as well as freshwater.
They do not have a head and most are filter feeders.


Have a prominent head, body, foot and a set of arms or tentacles. Animals in this class are carnivorous predators and have beak-like jaws. All cephalopods have a very well-developed nervous system along with eyes.
Several have the ability to change colors quickly.
Examples include,octopus,squid,and cuttlefish
The cuttlefish is famous for having the ability to change its color to blend into almost any background. 

What is blood made of?

Sunday, February 17, 2019

Our blood helps keep us alive.
Your blood makes up around 7% of your body weight
This equals between 1 and 1 and a half gallons 4.5 to 5.5 liters
Your blood is considered a connective tissue
It has many important functions
Here is a list of some of the major jobs
Transports oxygen to each cell and
removes waste material like carbon dioxide
Helps regulate your temperature and ph levels
Fights disease and helps the immune system do its job.
Blood transports nutrients, such as sugars, fats and proteins, amino acids,
Along with hormones which are your chemical messages of the endocrine system.

If you place blood in a centrifuge and spun it around
Here is how it would separate out

44 % would be red blood cells also called erythrocytes
1 % would be white blood cells and platelets
55% plasma

Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen. Red blood cells also remove carbon dioxide from your body, transporting it to the lungs for you to exhale.

Red blood cells are made inside your bones, in the bone marrow. They typically live for about 120 days, and then they die.

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes, are an important part of the immune system. These cells help fight infections by attacking bacteria, viruses, and germs that invade the body. White blood cells originate in the bone marrow but circulate throughout the bloodstream. There are five major types of white blood cells

Is the liquid portion of the blood.
It is 90 % water but contains other very important ingredients such as
glucose, electrolytes such as calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphate
hormones and waste products.

Platelets are tiny blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. Without these platelets, a minor cut could result in you losing all of your blood.

There are 8 different types of blood
A positive or negative
B positive or negative
AB positive or negative
O positive or negative

Prime Factorization of 164 and 500

Friday, February 15, 2019

Prime factorization of 164 and 500.

Prime factorization which is also called integer factorization or prime decomposition involves finding which numbers multiply together to equal the original number. In this video, I use a factor tree to find the prime factors of one hundred and sixty-four and five hundred.

In this video, I will express as a product of its prime numbers for 164 and 500.

Integer factorization of 164  2 * 2 * 41
Integers factorization of 500 2 * 2 * 5 * 5 * 5

Prime decomposition of 164  2 * 2 * 41
Prime factorization of 500   2 * 2 * 5 * 5 * 5

Set of prime numbers for 164
List of prime numbers for 500

MooMooMath and Science upload a new math or science video every day. We have over 1400 math and science videos to help in school and life.

Solvent Solute Solution What is the difference?

Wednesday, February 13, 2019

Learn the difference between solvent and solute.

Solvent is the object that dissolves the solute.

Imagine you have water, tea leaves, and sugar.

The water is the solvent, the tea leaves and sugar would be your solute.

Different types of Fossils

Tuesday, February 12, 2019

How do we know that the tyrannosaurus rex once roamed the earth?
How do we study a mosquito that is 46 million years old?
The answer is fossils. Fossils are the remains of once-living organisms.
Let’s take a look at five different types of fossils.

Up first, mineralization.  Mineralization occurs when an organism dies and is buried under sand and other sediments. The minerals in the water begin to replace the organisms original material. The object may harden and almost become a rock. For example, petrified wood is an example of mineralization.

Carbonization occurs when an organism dies and is compressed over time and eventually all that
remains is a carbon outline of the original organism. 

Molds and Casts 
Sometimes an organism will die and you may have a bone or a tooth and it will make an impression and then this impression hardens so you have a permanent record of the tooth or bone. On the other hand, this impression can then fill up and create a caste which is a copy of the impression. 

Trace Fossils

Sometimes you don't even have a record of the original organism but you have evidence of their behavior. You may find a footprint or tracks This type of a fossil is called a trace fossil.

Finally, you get a copy of the original material. What may happen is you may have a tiger that falls in a tar pit and is preserved for thousands of years. An insect may fall into amber and it will remain in this amber for a very long time.

There you go five different types of fossils which are remains of once-living organisms.

Prime factorization of 15 and 68

Sunday, February 10, 2019

Learn how to use a factor tree to find the prime numbers of 15 and 68. 
Prime factorization which is also called integer factorization or prime decomposition involves finding which numbers multiply together to equal the original number. In this video, I use a factor tree to find the prime factors of sixty-eight and fifteen.

Integer factorization of 68 = 2 x 2 x 17
Integers factorization of 15 = 3 x 5

Prime decomposition of 68
Prime factorization of 15

Which numbers multiply together to equal 68
Which numbers multiply together to equal 15

Set of prime numbers for 68
List of prime numbers for 15

MooMooMath and Science upload a new math or science video every day. We have over 1400 math and science videos to help in school and life.
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