How to find the Protons Neutrons and Electrons of an element on the Periodic Table

Thursday, May 28, 2020




How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Boron have?


The periodic table provides a wealth of information for the elements. However, if you can't read the periodic table it is not very helpful.
Let's go over some basics found in each box of the periodic table.

periodic table


You can easily fill out this chart if you know just a couple of facts.

periodic table box

Let's use Boron as an example.


periodic table boron

The Atomic Number identifies the element and the number of protons.
Boron has 5 protons.
In order to find the electrons take the atomic number and subtract the charge. A neutral element will have a 0 charge. An ion will have a plus or minus charge.

The atomic mass is the average mass of isotopes of elements.
If you round this to the closest whole number if is the mass number which is a combination of protons and neutrons.

If you subtract the mass number minus the protons this will be an element's neutrons.
Boron would have 11 - 5 = 6 neutrons.

In the video, I work through each example. I find the protons, neutrons, and electrons for Silver, Potassium, Tin,  and Fluorine.








What are the Different Types of Triangles?

Monday, May 25, 2020




What are the different types of triangles?

A triangle is a three-sided plane figure with three sides and three angles.

The sum of the three angles always equals 180 degrees.


Up first are triangles that are classified by the length of their sides.


A Scalene triangle has three different side lengths. 

An isosceles triangle has two congruent or equal sides, and an Equilateral triangle has three congruent or equal sides.


Triangles can also be classified by their angles.

There are three angles often associated with triangles.

  • Acute angles are less than 90 degrees

  • Right angles are exactly 90 degrees

  • Obtuse angles are greater than 90 degrees


All triangles have two acute angles and the third angle determines the type of

the triangle you have.


An acute triangle is a triangle with three angles that measure less than 90 degrees

An obtuse triangle is a triangle with one angle greater than 90 degrees.


A right triangle is a triangle with one right angle or ( 90 degrees).

Triangles are also classified by side length and angle measure.

This chart summarizes triangles classified by side length and angle measure.


Triangle chart

A scalene triangle, remember it has three different side lengths can be acute…. right…. and an obtuse triangle.


An isosceles triangle, remember 2 equal sides, can also be acute…., right…., and obtuse triangle.


An equilateral triangle can only be acute because in order to have three sides that are equal the angle measure must be 60 degrees.





Mitochondria are found in?

Friday, May 15, 2020



Mitochondria are amazing and cool. They are found in plants... animals,....fungi,.....protists, and any other eukaryotic cell.

They can quickly change shape and move around the cell when needed.
When the cell needs more energy, the mitochondria can reproduce by growing larger and then dividing. For example, say you want to get in shape. As you exercise more the mitochondria in your muscles will increase in number and navigate to the edges of the cell, which allows these muscle cells to have more energy. If the cell needs less energy, some mitochondria will die or become inactive.

Mitochondria are very similar to some bacteria. For this reason, some scientists think that they originally were bacteria that were absorbed by more complex cells. This theory is called endosymbiosis.

 During cellular respiration with the help of oxygen, the mitochondria produce 25 ATP Compare this to only 3 ATP produced during glycolysis in the cytoplasm. Thus the title “ The powerhouse of the cell.”

So why is this a big deal?

In order to do something like running which requires a large amount of energy,

ATP is required, but how does this ATP help?

To carry out life processes, ATP is continuously broken down into ADP, like a rechargeable battery, and releases a huge amount of energy which is used by the cell in several metabolic processes as well as in building macromolecules such as proteins.

ATP is critical for the contraction of muscles. ATP supplies the energy to move the contractile muscle proteins.

ATP is essential for certain pumps like the sodium-potassium pumps and calcium pumps. The sodium-potassium pump ensures that our cells have the correct amount of sodium and potassium which is essential to stay alive

 The adenosine from ATP is a building block of RNA and is directly added to RNA molecules. During Transcription DNA is copied to mRNA, which carries the information needed to make proteins 

So next time you may do anything requiring energy like mountain biking,


You can thank the amazing and cool mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell



Soil Horizons Explained

Thursday, April 30, 2020




Soil  Profile and Horizons Explained

Soil is all around us Soil is essential. You walk on grass rooted in the soil and eat food grown in soil.
Plants and trees need soil to grow but
What is soil composed of

If you look at a chart of soil you will see that Soil is made up of,

45%  minerals
5%    organic matter like decaying plants and animals
25%  water
24%  air

You can also study soil by looking at the soil profile and the soil horizon
A vertical layer of soil that shows all of the different layers is the soil profile.
Much like your profile on Facebook tells others all about you The profile tells others all about the soil

A soil horizon is each individual layer of the profile. Each layer has different physical properties.

Learn the difference between soil profile and the soil horizons.
The soil horizons are the horizontal layers of the soil. The layers are o a e b c r. 

O horizon also called litter is composed of dead leaves, twigs, sticks, fallen trees The O horizon is thin in some soils, thick in others, and not present at all in others.

A horizon also called topsoil Contains rich organic matter along with some minerals. This layer contains decomposers. The decomposers perform the task of breaking down plants and animals. The remains of these plants and animals create a mixture called humus which is a dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.

E horizon also is known as the Eluviated layer as water moves down the soil substances are removed and pulled out in this layer resulting in a concentration of sand and silt particles composed of quartz or other resistant materials This layer may be missing in some soils.

B horizon Subsoil Lighter in color, many times reddish or brownish in color because it has less humus it is a zone of accumulation where materials like clay collects from the movement of water downward

C horizon Parent material this layer contains much of the material that the soil was originally made from. It will contain rock fragments. Weathering breaks down this parent rock into smaller and smaller pieces of rock This layer is most often light in color.

R bedrock  A mass of rock such as granite, basalt, quartzite, limestone, or sandstone that forms the parent material for some soils.












Landforms created by Erosion.

Thursday, April 23, 2020


Erosion is the process by which sediment and other materials are moved from one place to another. There are four main agents of erosion, wind, water, ice, and waves.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil, and rocks are added to a landform or landmass.
Erosion and deposition have taken place throughout Earth’s history and have created a variety of landforms.
What landforms have been created by erosion?
Canyons and valleys pause
Canyons and valleys are created by the flow of water. As the water moves, it erodes rock and sediment from the streambed.
The steeper the river or stream the greater the erosion force. 

Erosion and deposition can form a flat area called a floodplain

When a stream empties into a body of water such as the ocean, an estuary, a lake, or reservoir. It’s current slows and sediment is deposited. A fan-shaped pattern is formed called a delta that can be created. 

An alluvial fan is created when the stream flows onto land. They are sometimes associated with flash floods. These fans typically form in mountain regions where there is a rapid change in slope from high to a gradual slope. When the land flattens out the flow of water loses energy and deposits sediment in a fan shape.

A meander is a bend in a river. The faster-moving water on the outside cuts into the bank. On the inside of the curve, water moves more slowly and deposits sediment. Sometimes a stream may cut a new channel that bypasses the meander. This cutoff meander may form a lake called an oxbow lake.

Groundwater can also be an agent of erosion
The groundwater dissolves and carries rock away and may create a cave.
If the roof of the cave collapses it may create a sinkhole.
The world's largest sinkhole. A sinkhole in Egypt is considered the largest in the world. It measures a staggering 80 kilometers long and 120 kilometers wide. Yes, that is kilometers not meters.

If you would like to know more about landforms this playlist you may enjoy this playlist.






10 Interesting facts about Mitochondria

Tuesday, April 21, 2020




Mitochondria are essential for  the production of proteins,RNA, pumps and several other essential processes in the cell.  Mitochondria are amazing and cool.
They are found in plants... animals,....fungi,.....protists, and any other eukaryotic cell.

Let's Learn 10 Facts about Mitochondria
  • They can quickly change shape and move around the cell when needed.
  • When the cell needs more energy, the mitochondria can reproduce by growing larger and then dividing. For example, say you want to get in shape. As you exercise more of the mitochondria in your muscles will increase in number and navigate to the edges of the cell, which allows these muscle cells to have more energy.
  • If the cell needs less energy, some mitochondria will die or become inactive. 
  • Mitochondria are very similar to some bacteria. For this reason, some scientists think that they originally were bacteria that were absorbed by more complex cells. This theory is called endosymbiosis.
  • During cellular respiration, with the help of oxygen, the mitochondria produces 25 ATP compared to only 3 ATP produced during gycolysis in the cytoplasm.
  • ATP is continuously broken down into ADP,like a rechargeable battery and releases a huge amount of energy which is used by the cell in several metabolic processes as well as in building macromolecules such as proteins.
  • ATP is critical for the contraction of muscles.
  • ATP supplies the energy to move the contractile muscle proteins.
  • ATP is essential for certain pumps like the sodium-potassium pumps and calcium pumps. The sodium-potassium pump insures that our cells have the correct amount of sodium and potassium which is essential to stay alive.
  • The adenosine from ATP is a building block of RNA and is directly added to RNA molecules. During Transcription DNA is copied to mRNA, which carries the information needed to make proteins. 

How to Read and Write a Decimal

Friday, April 17, 2020


How do you read 24.076?
If you follow a couple of simple rules it can be really easy.
Decimals are used to measure small amounts and small objects like the width of a hair. Your hair is only zero and four-hundredths of a millimeter wide. Ants are only zero and 75 hundredths of a centimeter in length.

Let's review a couple of items that will help when reading and writing a decimal.

Decimals are to the right of the decimal point.

Instead of increasing by ten times the number like numbers to the left of the decimal point do
numbers to the right of the decimal point are ten times smaller.
Notice that there are no ones involved with these numbers to the right of the decimal.

You start at tenths then hundredths thousandths, and so on. Notice the "th"  at the end of each decimal place name.

A decimal number has three parts.

A whole number, a decimal number, and a fractional part.

In order to read a decimal start at the far left. At the decimal point say "and"

then read the number after the decimal point. The last step is to say the name of the place of the final digit.

Let’s read the decimal number 2.54.

Two and 54 hundredths


Remember the ths at the end.

Let's Read 0.5

 Zero and 5 tenths

How about 0.0363?

 Zero and three hundred and sixty-three ten thousandths
Read
72. 4 
Seventy-two and four-tenths.





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