Transition Metals

Monday, April 13, 2020

Which group of metals are silver, maybe gold, and sometimes liquid?

The transition metals

The transition metals are the elements found in groups 3-12

According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. A transition metal is an element with a partially-filled d subshell or the capacity to produce cations with an incomplete d subshell.

Using this definition, here is a list of 40 transition metals with their number of valence electrons.
21 Scandium 2
22 Titanium 2
23 Vanadium 2
24 Chromium 1
25 Manganese 2
26 Iron 2
27 Cobalt 2
28 Nickel 2
29 Copper 1
30 Zinc 2
39 Yttrium 2
40 Zirconium 2
41 Niobium 1
Molybdenum 1
Technetium 2
Ruthenium 1
Rhodium 1
Palladium 18
Silver 1
48 Cadmium 2
71 lutetium 2
72 Hafnium 2
73 Tantalum 2
74 Tungsten 2
75 Rhenium 2
76 Osmium 2
77 Iridium 2
78 Platinum 1
79 Gold 1
80 Mercury 2
103 Lawrencium 3
104 Rutherfordium 2
105 Dubnium 2
106 Seaborgium 2
107 Bohrium 2
108 Hassium 2
109 Meitnerium 2
110 Darmstadtium 1
111 Roentgenium 2
112 Copernicium 2

Technically, the elements zinc, cadmium, and mercury which are found in Group 12 should not be considered transition metals because they have a full d10 configuration
Copernicium should probably be excluded on the same basis. However, most people include these elements in the transition metal list. There are also scientists and educators who include the full lanthanide and actinide series as transition metals. The transition metals are metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the table. The group elements with s orbitals and p orbitals.

The lanthanides and the actinides at the bottom of the table are sometimes known as the inner transition metals.
Most transition metals are like most metals and appear shiny and metallic with a grayish or white color. However, gold and copper have their own unique colors. Most have high melting points, but mercury is liquid at room temperature.

Although the transition metals are reactive, they are not as reactive as elements belonging to the alkali metals group.
Most transition metals have 2 electrons in their outer shell,but some have 1 electron and Palladium has 18.
They are good catalysts. They are paramagnetic which means they are attracted to a magnetic field. They are good electrical and thermal conductors.

They form alloys. An alloy is a combination of metals in which combine with one or more other elements. For example, iron combines with carbon creating steel.


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