Coding from Transcription to Translation |DNA to mRNA to tRNA|

Friday, February 22, 2019

Practice coding from DNA to mRNA to tRNA to the Amino acid

Let’s talk about decoding from DNA to mRNA to tRNA to an amino
acid in simple terms.
 DNA is made up of four nitrogen bases, 
Adenine Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. Let's shorten this to  A C G and T.
 A always pairs with T and G pairs with C.
If we have this strand of DNA and move from 5 to 3 for the complementary
strand you will have A will pair with T, G with C.  This template strand is moving from 3 prime to 5 prime. Why do you have a 5 and 3 prime end? The phosphate group is attached to the 5' carbon of the sugar ring, which is why it is called the 5' end and the hydroxyl group is attached to the 3' carbon of the sugar ring, which is why it is called the 3' end.
Messenger RNA is similar to DNA but instead of the nitrogen base thymine you have uracil For this complementary strand the DNA has unzipped and you are left with this
strand of DNA which is used as a template for mRNA.  The  T will pair
with the A, the A with the U, the C with G and so forth. Remember A pairs with Uracil instead of  Thymine with mRNA.This step is part of transcription.
Now transfer RNA pairs with the messenger RNA. The messenger RNA will be
the codon and the transport RNA will be the anticodon. The transfer RNA has
uracil, therefore, A will pair with U.
U will pair with A and G with C and so forth. This takes place outside the nucleus and is part of translation. Now let's find the amino acid. You can use an amino acid chart, I'm
using an mRNA chart so I will use the messenger RNA codon. The mRNA will code
in triplets. Notice you are reading from 5 prime to 3 prime.

  • AUG pairs up with the methionine
  • CCU pairs up with prolene
  • CUA pairs up with leucine 
  • GUA pairs up with valine. 

DNA           ATG     CCT  CTA  GTA
mRNA        UAC     GGA GAU CAU     
tRNA          AUG     CCU CUA  GUA 

Amino Acid  met     pro    leu     val


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